The State’s preferential standard is that all teachers are staffed by State officials. Retire, teachers are entitled to a pension like the current regime plus pedagogy.
The immortal education and training view of mankind is: “Must have good teachers to train many good students”.
After World War II in 1945, Germany was seriously destroyed. So many people have fallen with the consequences of the devastating war left.
The German education and training industry must also “rebuild from scratch”.
The teacher training schools at that time were still primitive and called “pedagogical institutes”. The time for teacher training is quite short, only 4 to 6 semesters.
Since 1962, the government has improved and supplemented the training program for teachers through extending the study time and equipping more knowledge for students.
Since 1971, the law on education and training has been supplemented, teacher training schools have been developed into pedagogical universities with a training period of 5 years.
In 1990, the state added the right to training pedagogical doctorates to pedagogical universities and then merged the Pedagogical University into the University by region and region.
Currently, only pedagogical universities exist in the state of BadenWuertemberg.
In other states, pedagogical students are educated at a pedagogical institute or pedagogy department of a general university (institute or pedagogy is the name of the state’s decision).
Universities synthesize teacher training and teaching for schools as follows:
– Grundschule teachers (equivalent to elementary school teachers in Vietnam).
– Realschule school teachers (equivalent to Vietnamese junior high school teachers).
– Gymnasium school teachers (High quality secondary school).
– Teachers of vocational schools.
Conditions for university education in Germany
To become a university student in pedagogy, young people must meet the following conditions:
– Basic conditions: high school diploma (Abitur) or equivalent.
– Personal conditions: Having good moral qualities, qualifications, pedagogical ability (speaking fluently, convincing and sympathetic …).
– To become a teacher of the arts, music, sports or foreign languages, there must be more proof of talent.
Depending on the purpose of training, the requirements for enrollment of pedagogy students vary.
For example: To become an elementary school teacher, the selection criteria will of course be lower than the target for high quality high school teachers – Gymnasium.
Germans and foreigners residing in Germany have the right to apply for Pedagogical University.
During the University course (all majors in Germany), students must pay administrative fees of between 100 and 150 Euro / year depending on the school.
Currently, in most states, students do not have to pay tuition fees.
According to the latest statistics in 2016, only a few states in the Federal Republic of Germany collect student fees (about 500 Euro / semester).
But students are free for the first 4 semesters, they have to pay tuition from the 5th semester. The upcoming trend may be 100% free tuition in the entire Federal Republic of Germany.
Primary school teacher training
4-year training period, of which basic training program (Bachelor) 3 years; final year students will receive intensive training (Master).
In 3 years of basic training, students must pass 6 semesters and 2 internships.
The first internship in Term 3, called the “Orientation Internship”, lasts 3 weeks.
The second internship, which lasts for at least 12 weeks, is called a “professional internship,” in semester 5 or 6 depending on the school.
At the end of Semester 6, students will pass a Bachelor’s exam. In this exam, students must pass 4 basic subjects: math, literature, foreign languages and religion studies.
After receiving the Bachelor’s degree, students will continue to study an intensive year (studying Master).
During this school year, students will be equipped with more specialized knowledge and a “Master” topic. At the end of the school year, students will have to protect the “Master”.
Successful protection they will receive a “Master of Education” – University of Pedagogy diploma for elementary teachers. ”
When having this degree, young people will spend 18 months “teaching” in an elementary school (salary for teaching).
After passing the teaching test, young people will officially be granted a “second certificate” to work as teachers at primary schools throughout the whole of Germany. Elementary teachers usually teach students in grades 1 to 4 (ending primary).
Secondary school teacher training
Training time is 5 years, including 3 years of basic study (called Bachelor) and 2 years of intensive study (called Master). In addition, students must perform 2-3 internships.
During the bachelor’s degree, students must undergo 6 semester examinations (2 semesters a year). At the beginning of Term 4, students “practice orientation” for 3 weeks.
Before the end of Bachelor time, students must practice at least 12 weeks. In addition, they may have to practice for the third time during the Master’s degree, depending on the regulations of each state and each school.
At the end of Semester 6, students will pass a Bachelor’s exam.
This exam students must choose at least 2 major subjects depending on the ability and choice of each person. Those are the 2 subjects they will take once they have completed the University, pass the “practice” exam.
After receiving the “Bachelor” certificate, students will continue to study for 2 years Master – intensive program. (Master: Previously a specialized course of study at university with the last semester is to write a thesis Diplom).
At the end of the University, students must protect the “Master” (equivalent to defending the former Diplom). When defending successfully, young people will receive a “Master of Education” – a pedagogical university diploma for junior high school teachers. ”
Next, it is the 18 to 24 months of instruction time at a junior high school, depending on the state …
Upon passing the test, young teachers will be granted a “second certificate”, officially becoming a teacher at the junior high school throughout the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Training high quality high school teachers – Gymnasium
Training time 5 years, including 3 years of basic study (Bachelor) and 2 years of intensive study (Master). In addition, students must have 1 semester internship at home and abroad (if possible).
Students are trained in general universities throughout Germany, faculty of pedagogy.
3 internships during 10 semesters:
– 3 weeks of orientation practice in Semester 4 or 5.
– 12 weeks of secondary tutoring practice at a junior high school (grades 5 to 9) in Semester 8 (during Master’s time)
– 1 semester of internship: including 8 weeks of practice teaching German at a German language school abroad and 4-6 weeks of professional teaching practice (grades 5 to 10) at a Gymnasium school in Germany ..
After having a “bachelor’s certificate”, students will continue to study for 2 years Master. In the last semester, you will receive a Master’s topic (formerly known as a Diplom topic).
As a rule, the Master is written between 60 and 130 pages. At the end of the Master lesson, students must specify the table of contents, contents and references.
After successfully protecting the Master, you will be granted a “Master of Education” certificate – a teacher’s college diploma for Gymnasium teachers.
With this qualification, young teachers have 24 months of training at a gymnasium. Each teacher teaches at least 2 subjects as if he has been trained by a Master.
The teachers must teach alternately: firstly the subordinates (grades 5 to 7); middle level (grades 8 to 10) and finally the upper level (grades 11 and 12).
When successful in the teaching test, young teachers will be granted a “second certificate”: officially a teacher of Gymnasium.
Training teachers in vocational schools
Students are trained in universities, pedagogy, and vocational teachers.
First of all, young people must choose two main subjects (2 majors) to study.
These 2 majors must be in the same direction to equip knowledge for apprentices of a later major. Eg:
– Economic and administrative.
– Mechanical, repair and electronics.
– Construction industry and wood processing.
– Textile, garment and fashion industry.
– Interior decoration, color scanning technique.
– Staff of chemical, pharmaceutical and biological laboratories.
– Mechanical and electrical laboratory staff
– Health services: makeup, haircut, masage – Cultivating, breeding, gardening.
– Information technology, electronic design, advertising …
5-year study period: including 3 years of basic study (Bachelor), 2 years of intensive study (Master) and especially 1 semester of internship (13-14 weeks) during the time of Master study.
Internships are very important for students, because:
The future vocational teachers will have to master 4 modern equipment and machines in laboratories, workshops … Thereby, they will be able to guide maturation, mentoring apprentices after that.
After they have protected and earned a “Master of Education”, young teachers will have to undergo a 24-month teaching period.
Currently, in Germany there are not enough specialized teachers for vocational schools, so the government encourages young people to have graduated from the Master of various disciplines at the Universities, further training some subjects. Pedagogy and 2 years of training to receive the certificate of becoming a vocational teacher.
The state’s preferential standard for teachers is that all teachers are staffed as government employees. When retiring, teachers will be entitled to a pension according to the current regime with added pedagogical coefficient.